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The cell is the fundamental unit of life. It is the smallest structure of the body capable of performing all of the processes that define life. Each of the organs in the body, such as the lung, breast, colon, and brain, consists of specialized cells that carry out the organ's functions such as the transportation of oxygen, digestion of nutrients, excretion of waste materials, locomotion, reproduction, thinking, etc
Risk expectation and prediction and Cancer prevention, growth counteractive action is also promising and encouraging areas of Epigenetics. A high adequacy of demethylating agents were accounted for essentially in hematological malignancies in view of new conventions with low dose and long exposure, and their utilization is presently being striven for strong tumors. During the cell’s transformation to Cancerous cell, Epigenetic modifications are also more important like genetic mutation. Their manipulation brings a great promising approach for inventing, detecting and treatment of cancer.
Cancer metabolism refers to the alterations in cellular metabolism pathways that are evident in cancer cells compared with most normal tissue cells. Metabolic alterations in cancer cells are numerous and include aerobic glycolysis, reduced oxidative phosphorylation and the increased generation of biosynthetic intermediates needed for cell growth and proliferation.
An intricate network of signals regulates cell growth and other cellular activities. When this communication system goes awry and signals aren’t properly conveyed or processed, many diseases can result, including cancer. Among our researchers who study cell signaling and regulation are experts in molecular, cellular, structural, and developmental biology.
Recognizing cancer as a group of diseases caused by nanostructural problems (i.e. with DNA) and also that there are unique benefits to approaches inherently involving nanoscale structures and processes to treat the disease, the journal Cancer Nanotechnology aims to disseminate cutting edge research; to promote emerging trends in the use of nanostructures and the induction of nanoscale processes for the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of cancer; and to cover related ancillary areas.
Computational Oncology is a semi-new phrase that is beginning to gain speed in medicine. It may be surprising to some to find out that there are full departments being created at large medical institutions across the globe titled as such. Institutions like Memorial Sloan Kettering, University of Texas, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, MD Anderson, DKFZ German Cancer Research Center, and more have departments in this area. Upon deeper examination, this two-word phrase evokes a full sense of the complexity surrounding healthcare, particularly the realm of oncology. It speaks to the growth of the industry and expansion of medicine into a more multidisciplinary space.
The process of activating, replacing, engineering or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function refers to regenerative medicine. Cancer immunotherapy activates, replaces, engineers or regenerates the immune system in order to fight cancer. In fact, it is the most frequently used and marketed form of regenerative medicine.
Indeed, cancer immunotherapy takes advantage of the intrinsic ability of hematopoietic stem or more mature cells to target and eliminate cancer cells. Such blood cells serve as biological material for further selection, manipulation and/or sensitization to increase their anti-tumor potential. For example, white blood cells can undergo genetic modification to enable binding with CD19, a cancer biomarker present on the surface of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma, or BCMA, present on multiple myeloma cells.
DNA modifications that do not change the DNA sequence can affect gene activity. Chemical compounds that are added to single genes can regulate their activity; these modifications are known as epigenetic changes. The epigenome comprises all of the chemical compounds that have been added to the entirety of one’s DNA (genome) as a way to regulate the activity (expression) of all the genes within the genome. The chemical compounds of the epigenome are not part of the DNA sequence, but are on or attached to DNA (“epi-“ means above in Greek). Epigenetic modifications remain as cells divide and in some cases can be inherited through the generations. Environmental influences, such as a person’s diet and exposure to pollutants, can also impact the epigenome.
The maintenance of genome integrity is essential for organism survival and for the inheritance of traits to offspring. Genomic instability is caused by DNA damage, aberrant DNA replication or uncoordinated cell division, which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations. Recently, chromatin regulators that shape the epigenetic landscape have emerged as potential gatekeepers and signalling coordinators for the maintenance of genome integrity. Here, we review chromatin functions during the two major pathways that control genome integrity: namely, repair of DNA damage and DNA replication. We also discuss recent evidence that suggests a novel role for chromatin-remodelling factors in chromosome segregation and in the prevention of aneuploidy.
Tumor immunology describes the interaction between cells of the immune system with tumor cells. Understanding these interactions is important for the development of new therapies for cancer treatment. It is an interdisciplinary branch of biology that is concerned with understanding the role of the immune system in the progression and development of cancer. cancer immunotherapy utilizes the immune system for the treatment of cancer.
Cancer Immunology Research
Biomarkers and diagnostics
Metastasis is the spread of malignant growth cells to new territories of the body, regularly by method for the lymph framework or circulatory system. A metastatic disease, or metastatic tumor, is one that has spread from the essential site of birthplace, or where it began, into various zones of the body. Tumors framed from cells that have spread are called auxiliary tumors. The malignant growth may have spread to territories close to the essential site, called local metastasis. At the point when the malignant growth has spread to different pieces of the body, it is called metastatic disease. The liver, lungs, lymph hubs and bones are regular zones of metastasis.
Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition.The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. Antimicrobial resistance and antineoplastic resistance challenge clinical care and drive research. When an organism is resistant to more than one drug, it is said to be multidrug-resistant. The immune system of an organism is in essence a drug delivery system.
Infections are a major complication of cancer treatment. In addition, about one-third of cancers result from infection with a microbe or the ensuing inflammation from that infection. Our research center studies the role that microbes and the body’s response to them play in cancer development. We also look at ways to prevent and treat infections through a better understanding of the microbiome.
Molecular pathology is a discipline that focus on the study and diagnosis of disease by the examination of molecules in organs, tissues or bodily fluids. It focuses mainly on the sub-microscopic aspects of the disease. It also shares some aspects of practice with anatomic pathology, clinical pathology, molecular biology, biochemistry, proteomics and genetics, and is considered as "crossover" discipline. The purpose of molecular pathology is to elucidate the mechanisms of disease by identifying molecular and pathway alterations. Molecular pathology is commonly used in the diagnosis of cancer and infectious diseases. Techniques like quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), multiplex PCR, DNA microarray, in situ hybridization, in situ RNA sequencing, DNA sequencing, molecular profiling of pathogens, and analysis of bacterial genes for antimicrobial resistance are used for diagnosis of diseases
Journal of Neuro-Oncology and Neuroscience gives emphasis for publishing basic, fundamental as well as state-of-the-art articles in the field of Neurologic neoplasms, oncology, cancer and neuroscience. The journal includes a wide range of fields in its discipline to create a platform for the authors to make their contribution towards the journal. Neuro-Oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these).
Latest Molecular Biology research, developments, clinical observations, drug and pharmaceutical developments in the field of Neurology might unravel new mechanisms of neurons function, reasons behind Neoplasms of Neuronal tissues, how to treat, cure or ameliorate Neuro cancer will be most welcome, to be published in this journal. We welcome original research articles, reviews, case reports, Opinion articles (with literature evidence) etc.
Our scientists are expanding our understanding of the fundamental processes by which solid tumors develop, progress, and respond to treatment. Our efforts span many research areas including cancer genetics and genomics, cell regulation and signaling, cancer metabolism, tumor microenvironment, animal models of cancer, and metastasis
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is the environment around a tumor, including the surrounding blood vessels, immune cells, fibroblasts, signaling molecules and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The tumor and the surrounding microenvironment are closely related and interact constantly. Tumors can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals, promoting tumor angiogenesis and inducing peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells in the microenvironment can affect the growth and evolution of cancerous cells.
The tumour microenvironment can also shape therapeutic responses and resistance, justifying the recent impetus to target components of the tumour microenvironment, which is best exemplified by the success of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the clinic.
Diagnostics assumes a key job all through every patient's malignant growth venture—previously, during and after treatment. During treatment, we track the size of the tumor, the infection's movement and your reaction to treatment, and adjust your treatment as required. In specific situations, insignificantly obtrusive apparatuses like navigational bronchoscopy and endoscopic ultrasound enable us to find and arrive at extremely little tumors without the requirement for medical procedure. After treatment, we help you avert, distinguish and deal with the reactions of the illness and its treatment, and we plan normal registration to screen for indications of metastasis or repeat.
Cancer Prevention Research, the newest journal from the American Association for Cancer Research, is devoted exclusively to cancer prevention. The journal publishes important original studies, reviews, and perspectives within the major topic areas of oncogenesis, risk factors and risk assessment, early detection research, and chemopreventive and other interventions, including the basic science behind them. Cancer Prevention Research comprises preclinical, clinical and translational research, with special attention given to molecular discoveries and an emphasis on building a translational bridge between the basic and clinical sciences.
Cancer can affect each population differently. Minority groups in the United States bear a greater burden for many cancers. Much of this difference is due to poverty, which creates barriers to cancer prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. The American Cancer Society conducts and supports research to help understand cancer inequalities and create strategies for overcoming them.
Screening refers to the use of simple tests across a healthy population in order to identify individuals who have disease, but do not yet have symptoms. Examples include breast cancer screening using mammography and cervical cancer screening using cytology screening methods, including Pap smears. Early detection of cancer greatly increases the chances for successful treatment. There are two major components of early detection of cancer: education to promote early diagnosis and screening.
Recognizing possible warning signs of cancer and taking prompt action leads to early diagnosis. Increased awareness of possible warning signs of cancer, among physicians, nurses and other health care providers as well as among the general public, can have a great impact on the disease. Some early signs of cancer include lumps, sores that fail to heal, abnormal bleeding, persistent indigestion, and chronic hoarseness. Early diagnosis is particularly relevant for cancers of the breast, cervix, mouth, larynx, colon and rectum, and skin.
Cancer genomics is the study of the totality of DNA sequence and gene expression differences between tumour cells and normal host cells. It aims to understand the genetic basis of tumour cell proliferation and the evolution of the cancer genome under mutation and selection by the body environment, the immune system and therapeutic interventions.
Targeted therapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs. But it is different from traditional chemotherapy, which also uses drugs to treat cancer. Targeted therapy works by targeting the cancer’s specific genes, proteins, or the tissue environment that contributes to cancer growth and survival. These genes and proteins are found in cancer cells or in cells related to cancer growth, like blood vessel cells.
Targeted therapy is the foundation of precision medicine. It is a type of cancer treatment that targets the changes in cancer cells that help them grow, divide, and spread. As researchers learn more about the cell changes that drive cancer, they are better able to design promising therapies that target these changes or block their effects.
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